Status update — October 18, 2016
MicroKing Finance has been acquired by the Microcred Group, together with AfricInvest. MicroKing is expected to undergo a comprehensive turnaround strategy to align its operations with those of Microcred’s network. The investment will also enable MicroKing to strengthen its market position and accelerate its growth strategy, leveraging the full technical and financial support of Microcred and AfricInvest. While MicroKing has yet to submit repayment on the outstanding debt due to Kiva lenders, the administrators of MicroKing are in the process of finalizing an agreement to repay MicroKing's existing debt obligations. While this partnership remains paused until MicroKing is able to remit funds to Kiva, we continue to remain in close contact with MicroKing management during this time and will inform lenders when their payment plan has been finalized.
Status update — November 9, 2015
The administrators of MicroKing are in the process of finalizing an agreement to sell the company to new shareholders. In order to resume full operations, MicroKing is in the process of restructuring the organization, which includes regulatory approval of the acquisition from the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. MicroKing intends to complete the restructuring process and be positioned to begin repayments to lenders beginning in June 2016. During this transition, Kiva has temporarily paused this partnership, meaning no additional loans will be posted to Kiva until MicroKing is able to remit funds to Kiva. Kiva continues to remain in close contact with MicroKing management during this time and will inform lenders as further developments take place.
MicroKing is currently undergoing a change in ownership. Its previous shareholder recently closed down, and as a result MicroKing is in the process of being sold to new shareholders and instituting a new board of directors. During the transition, Kiva has temporarily paused this partnership and no additional loans will be posted to Kiva until new shareholders are in place. MicroKing is also awaiting approval from the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe to be able to make repayments owed to Kiva lenders during the sale process, but can’t send funds to Kiva until approval is received. Kiva remains in close contact with MicroKing management during this time and will inform lenders as further developments take place.
MicroKing Finance is one of Zimbabwe's leading microfinance institutions and provides savings and credit services to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe. As of the first quarter of 2011, the institution had 7 branches in Zimbabwe in Harare, Chitungwiza, Masvingo, Mbare, Mutare, Bulawayo and Gweru. MicroKing serves more than 10,000 clients with a portfolio in excess of US$7M.
The microfinance market in Zimbabwe is highly underdeveloped and continues to adjust to the new realities of the Zimbabwe economy. Prior to 2009, the Zimbabwe dollar was the only permissible currency for business transactions and was rapidly devalued from hyperinflation:
Year Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2002 134.50 %
2003 384.70 %
2004 133.00 %
2005 266.80 %
2006 976.40 %
2007 12,563.00 %
2008 11,200,000.00 %
In early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe formally allowed the US dollar to operate as a secondary currency and, practically, became the primary currency of transactions in the country. MicroKing and it clients almost exclusively transact in US dollars as of early 2011.
During the period of hyperinflation, microfinance loans in Zimbabwe were extended for extraordinarily short terms and generally to cross-border traders. As of early 2010, loans continued to be extended over short time horizons reflecting short term financing for portfolios, concerns about continued economic and political stability, and frequent borrower business orientations to quick turnover activities
MicroKing has a long history in Zimbabwe and was originally founded in July 2001 as a division of Kingdom Bank Limited, a commercial bank in Zimbabwe, to provide high quality financial services to the under-banked but rapidly growing Zimbabwean informal sector. Since 2005, MicroKing has been 100% owned by Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited and is registered as a microfinance institution through the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. The organization is financed by Kingdom Bank, a sister entity, as well as via loans from Triple Jump (Dutch microfinance lender) and Mercy Corps (on an agricultural value chain project).
Loan Term: 3-24 months
Grace Period: 0-4 months
Interest Rate: 36% annualized declining balance
Fees: 5% upfront
Compulsory Savings: None
Pricing on Kiva loans is significantly reduced (40% lower than non-Kiva loans) but provided at levels that ensure MicroKing can remain sustainable.
Note: MicroKing's loans are guaranteed against institutional default (failure of MicroKing to repay Kiva lenders if the borrower repays MicroKing) by MicroKing's parent company: Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited.
Status update — August 13, 2012
This spring, MicroKing's delinquency rates became abnormally high. As a result, the organization has decided to restructure part of its Kiva portfolio. It will be re-evaluating the repayment terms of certain borrower groups to ease the burden on clients who are having difficulty repaying their loans on time.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to change the repayment schedule of a loan once it is posted to Kiva. This means that clients may show up on Kiva as delinquent, even though they are not. This is becauseMicroKing is collecting less per installment than reflected on the website. For example, a loan that originally had a 12-month repayment term may be restructured to 18 months so that the client can pay less per installment.
MicroKing's decision to restructure will affect delinquency rates in two places on Kiva:
1. MicroKing's overall delinquency rate will be artificially high.
2. MicroKing borrowers may appear delinquent on Kiva when they are actually paying back on time per their restructured payment schedules.
MicroKing attributes repayment difficulty to seasonality and low-liquidity during the months of January, February and March in Zimbabwe. During this period, many people need to pay school fees, and agricultural workers must buy inputs like seed and fertilizer. The lack of disposable cash in the market hurts Kiva borrowers who are primarily employed in retail and cross-border trade.
A Note on MicroKing’s Portfolio Yield:
We care deeply about the cost that Kiva borrowers pay for their loans, which is why fair pricing is a core part of our initial due diligence process for Field Partners. With Kiva's 0% capital, many of our Field Partners are also able to add additional value to their loans by reducing interest rates, offering non-financial services or creating new loan products.
For partners with reported portfolio yields or average APRs higher than 50%, Kiva takes steps to check that the high rates are justified by the impact of the loans. Kiva also verifies that the partner is not generating unreasonable profits or paying inflated salaries, and that the partner’s elevated operating costs are justified by its operating environment and/or the design of its loan products.
We seek to support loans that don’t impose an unjustifiable cost burden on hard-working borrowers. We nevertheless recognize that in order to reach vulnerable and excluded people with high-impact products and services, some of our partners incur high costs that necessitate charging higher-than-average costs to borrowers in order to allow for sustainability and scale. With this partner, Kiva capital is supporting a loan product that costs less than the partner's typical products.
Factors that drive up the costs that this partner organization charges its borrowers include:They’re based in an area with a high cost of living and doing business. This is often due to the high demand and low supply of adequate housing and goods.
This partner is working in a country where doing business is difficult and costly due to regulatory, procedural and governance issues.
They work in areas with very poor infrastructure, such as limited roads. This increases the costs of finding clients and maintaining branch offices.
They pay high interest rates on the loans they take from banks and other funders, given the market in which they operate. This means they need more support from innovative sources like Kiva to reduce costs and pass savings on to borrowers.
Repayment Performance on Kiva
|This Field Partner||All Kiva Partners|
|Start Date On Kiva||Mar 30, 2011||Oct 12, 2005|
|Amount of raised Inactive loans||$0||$604,950|
|Number of raised Inactive loans||0||505|
|Amount of Paying Back Loans||$221,025||$135,603,825|
|Number of Paying Back Loans||232||165,411|
|Amount of Ended Loans||$1,747,250||$737,343,550|
|Number of Ended Loans||911||916,223|
|Amount in Arrears||$97,359||$7,503,236|
|Number of Loans Delinquent||232||22,532|
|Amount of Ended Loans Defaulted||$68,378||$9,715,856|
|Number of Ended Loans Defaulted||127||27,172|
|Currency Exchange Loss Rate||0.00%||0.44%|
|Amount of Currency Exchange Loss||$0||$3,823,595|
|Amount of Refunded Loans||$22,900||$5,700,625|
|Number of Refunded Loans||10||5,834|
Loan Characteristics On Kiva
|This Field Partner||All Kiva Partners|
|Loans to Women Borrowers||80.79%||74.90%|
|Average Loan Size||$450||$407|
|Average Individual Loan Size||$688||$640|
|Average Group Loan Size||$2,191||$1,807|
|Average number of borrowers per group||5.1||7.8|
|Average GDP per capita (PPP) in local country||$2,000||$5,934|
|Average Loan Size / GDP per capita (PPP)||22.52%||6.87%|
|Average Time to Fund a Loan||7.27 days||6.92 days|
|Average Dollars Raised Per Day Per Loan||$61.94||$58.90|
|Average Loan Term||7.28 months||11.05 months|
Journaling Performance on Kiva
|This Field Partner||All Kiva Partners|
|Average Number of Comments Per Journal||0.00||0.05|
|Average Number of Recommendations Per Journal||0.00||1.27|
Borrowing Cost Comparison (based on 2013 data)
|This Field Partner||Median for MFI's in Country||All Kiva Partners|
|Average Cost to Borrower||61% PY||59.00% PY||26.87% PY|
|Profitability (return on assets)||11.7%||N/A||-0.77%|
|Average Loan Size (% of per capita income)||173.30%||138.00%||18.82%|
Country Fast Facts
- Official Language:
- Shona (official), Ndebele (official), English (official), 13 minority languages
- Avg Annual Income:
- Labor Force:
- agriculture: 66%, industry: 10%, services: 24%
- Population Below Poverty Line:
- Literacy Rate:
- Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000):
- 26.55 deaths
- Life Expectancy:
- 55.95 years
Field Partner StaffZvakanaka Bhasira
Mordecai Samuel Burutu