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Partner Description:

PT Ruma is a for-profit social enterprise based in Jakarta, Indonesia. Its mission  is to “increase dignity, income, and access for the poor through technology.” To do this, the organization creates employment opportunities for the poor, targeting Indonesians living below the $2.50 per day poverty line, and helping them become entrepreneurs who sell telecom and bill pay services that PT Ruma makes available through its network. These entrepreneurs are referred to individually as “agents,” and collectively as the “PT Ruma agent network.”  
PT Ruma recruits and trains its agents to sell prepaid mobile phone airtime, electricity, and other value-added services using mobile phones and related technologies. It supports these agents with retail support services. It also manages, and sells cell phone airtime. Kiva loans provide poor entrepreneurs with the start-up capital they need to begin operating as PT Ruma agents. PT Ruma agents currently have two services they can sell through the organization, with the support of Kiva loans: cell phone airtime and bill-pay service. 
Cell phone airtime sales:
Indonesia has a very competitive telecommunication market, with 11 mobile networks in operation. Most cell phone owners use their phones by pre-purchasing minutes on the network of their choice. In densely populated areas, there are thousands of retailers who sell minutes across the different networks. In rural areas, however, it is more challenging to operate a minutes retail business due to the high costs associated with maintaining inventory from all 11 networks and, as well as limited demand and technical skills.  
PT Ruma enables the sale of universal prepaid minutes that can be used on any of the 11 networks. These are called Ruma credits. By managing a wholesale inventory of pre-paid minutes on all 11 networks, PT Ruma removes the technical complexities for rural retailers managing sales of cell phone minutes. 
Kiva loans to PT Ruma agents selling Ruma credits, or universal cell phone minutes, enable the agents to purchase a start-up batch of Ruma credits from PT Ruma. Because agents are not PT Ruma employees, Ruma credits are not provided to agents in advance. Kiva loans enable agents to keep a high inventory of Ruma credits on hand as they build a credit history with PT Ruma, and also build savings to fund their inventory from the income of their business.
Bill pay services:
PT Ruma enables its agents to offer bill payment services to their customers via Kartuku, a local bill-pay company. Agents can collect cash payments for bills -- like water and electricity bills. They can then use what are called Electronic Data Capture (EDC) devices to enter payments and print receipts for customers. Ruma staff members collect payments from agents and manage cash flow to service providers. For each payment collected, agents receive a fee.
Paying bills through local PT Ruma agents saves customers the time and money they would spend traveling to urban areas to pay bills in person. This makes a big difference for people in remote or rural areas, or who need to maximize work hours to get by.
Kiva loans will serve as deposits for EDC devices, making them more accessible to PT Ruma agents. Kartuku lends EDC machines to agents. Because PT Ruma guarantees the machine, it requires a deposit from the agent. This deposit covers the device if it is damaged.
Motorbike purchases:
PT Ruma maintains a network of field officers responsible for overseeing agents by region, selling them airtime and collecting cash. There is opportunity for agents to become field officers and earn twice as much as full-time employees. 
In order to do their jobs effectively, field officers require motorbikes to travel between agents.  Ruma offers 0%, four-year loans to agents to purchase these bikes on credit, enabling them to earn more funds and avoid the high interest rates that are typically charged on motorbikes bought on credit.
PT Ruma won first place at the 2010 Harvard Social Enterprise Conference, and second place at the 2010 Global Social Venture Competition. The organization was incubated with Grameen Foundation, one of its technology partners. PT Ruma has also received funding from Unitus Impact and Omidyar Network.

Repayment Performance on Kiva

    This Field Partner All Kiva Partners
  Start Date On Kiva Apr 24, 2012 Oct 12, 2005
Total Loans $643,950 $721,596,850
Amount of raised Inactive loans $0 $330,500
Number of raised Inactive loans 0 280
Amount of Paying Back Loans $319,075 $134,074,425
Number of Paying Back Loans 462 154,064
Amount of Ended Loans $324,875 $587,191,925
Number of Ended Loans 554 728,056
Delinquency Rate 0.00% 8.68%
Amount in Arrears $0 $7,570,616
Outstanding Portfolio $308,692 $87,191,655
Number of Loans Delinquent 0 29,731
Default Rate 0.00% 1.17%
Amount of Ended Loans Defaulted $0 $6,842,874
Amount of Ended Loans $324,875 $587,191,925
Number of Ended Loans Defaulted 0 19,786
Currency Exchange Loss Rate 0.88% 0.27%
Amount of Currency Exchange Loss $5,637 $1,945,073
Refund Rate 0.23% 0.68%
Amount of Refunded Loans $1,500 $4,902,575
Number of Refunded Loans 1 5,417

Loan Characteristics On Kiva

    This Field Partner All Kiva Partners
  Loans to Women Borrowers 40.23% 74.41%
Average Loan Size $635 $416
Average Individual Loan Size $635 $653
Average Group Loan Size $0 $1,848
Average number of borrowers per group 0 8
Average GDP per capita (PPP) in local country $5,200 $5,937
Average Loan Size / GDP per capita (PPP) 12.21% 7.01%
Average Time to Fund a Loan 15.62 days 6.38 days
Average Dollars Raised Per Day Per Loan $40.64 $65.23
  Average Loan Term 13.99 months 10.77 months

Journaling Performance on Kiva

    This Field Partner All Kiva Partners
  Total Journals 222 354,292
  Journaling Rate 32.71% 41.30%
  Average Number of Comments Per Journal 0.00 0.06
  Average Number of Recommendations Per Journal 0.00 1.56

Borrowing Cost Comparison (based on 2013 data)

    This Field Partner Median for MFI's in Country All Kiva Partners
  Average Cost to Borrower 0% APR 40.00% PY 31.80% PY
  Profitability (return on assets) -45% 1.8% -1.92%
  Average Loan Size (% of per capita income) N/A 23.00% 19.51%

Country Fast Facts

Field Partner Staff

Citra Kerti Ananda
Ben Elberger
Rani Hanida
Aldi Haryopratomo
Adinda Khairina
Yudith Kristianti
Viny Kurniawan
Dita Oktavitasari
Aletta Septania
Abraham Suriadikusumah
Christin Viesta
Devy Widyaastuti

Kiva Fellow(s)

Katherine O'Brien