Kiva Lending Team: Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan
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Friends and Family members of Sir Zafrullah Khan, the first Foreign Minister of the Republic of Pakistan.
Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, KCSI (February 6, 1893 - September 1, 1985) was a Pakistani politician, diplomat, international jurist, and scholar of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, known for drafting the Pakistan Resolution, for his representation of Pakistan at the United Nations, and serving as a judge at the International Court of Justice in The Hague.
The son of the leading attorney of his native city Sialkot, Zafarullah Khan studied at Government College, Lahore and received his LL.B. from King's College London, in 1914.He was called Chaudhury because of his belonging to the prestigious jat clan of Sahi which held sway over Sialkot since ancient times. He practiced law in Sialkot and Lahore, became a member of the Punjab Legislative Council in 1926, and was a delegate in 1930, 1931, and 1932 to the Round Table Conferences on Indian reforms in London, England. In 1931–1932 he was president of the Muslim League, and he sat on the British Viceroy's Executive Council as its Muslim member from 1935 to 1941. He led the Indian delegation to the League of Nations in 1939, and from 1941 to 1947 he served as a judge of the Federal Court of India.
Prior to the partition of India in 1947, Zafarullah Khan drafted the Pakistan Resolution and presented the Muslim League's view of the future boundaries of Pakistan to Sir Cyril Radcliffe, the man designated to decide the boundaries between India and Pakistan. Upon the independence of Pakistan, Zafarullah Khan became the new country's minister of foreign affairs and served concurrently as leader of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations (1947–1954). From 1954 to 1961, he served as a member of the International Court of Justice at The Hague. He again represented Pakistan at the United Nations (1961–1964) and served as president of the UN General Assembly in 1962 to 1963. Returning to the International Court of Justice in 1964, he served as the court's president from 1970 to 1973.
In September 1941, Zafarullah Khan was appointed Judge of the Federal Court of India which he held until June 1947. At the request of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he represented the Muslim League in July 1947 before the Radcliffe Boundary Commission and presented the case of the Muslims in a highly commendable manner. Zafrullah Khan advised the Nawab of Junagadh that if he decided to join his state with Pakistan, it would be both moral and legal. The Nawab then proceeded to announce his decision.
In October 1947, Zafrullah represented Pakistan in United Nations General Assembly as the head of the Pakistan delegation and advocated the position of the Muslim world on the Palestinian issue. That year, he was appointed as Pakistan's 1st Foreign Minister, a post he held for 7 years. Between 1948 and 1954, he also represented Pakistan at the United Nations Security Council and where he advocated the case of liberation of the occupied Kashmir, Libya, Northern Ireland, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco, and Indonesia.
As Foreign Minister, he represented Pakistan at the Manila Treaty Conference in September 1954. Support for the Manila Pact in Pakistan was divided, with the West Pakistan dominated army and a handful of leaders in favor of it, while most elected members of the Constituent Assembly from West Pakistan and all of the Assembly members from East Pakistan were opposed to it. Pakistani historians have asserted that at the conference, in order to be as cooperative as possible with the US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Zafarullah went further than his mandate from the elected Constituent Assembly and signed the Manila Pact, committing Pakistan's accession to the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). This led to differences between him and then Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra and led to his replacement as the Foreign Minister in October 1954.
In 1954, he became a Judge of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, a posiion he held until 1961. He became the Vice President of the International Court of Justice from 1958 to 1961. Between 1961 and 1964, he was Pakistan's Permanent Representative at the UN while at the same time, became President of the UN General Assembly in 1962 for 2 years.
Location: Salt Lake City, USA
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